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BNP Founder and President Ziaur Rahman 1936 - 1981

President Ziaur Rahman, Bir Uttam, (Bengali: জিয়াউর রহমান Ji-yaur Rôhman) (January 19, 1936 – May 30, 1981) was a Bangladeshi politician and general, who made the declaration of Independence of Bangladesh on March 27, 1971 on behalf of the national leaders. He later became the seventh President of Bangladesh from 1977 until 1981. A highly decorated and accomplished military officer, he retired from the Bangladesh Army as a Lieutenant General. He was the first sector and brigade commander of the Bangladeshi Forces during the Bangladesh war of independence with Pakistan. As a Military ruler, he first founded JAGODAL but he himself did not become a member of it. Then he founded the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), one of the two largest political parties in the country. He is popularly known as Shaheed President Zia, meaning martyred Zia, in reference to his 1981 assassination.

President of Bangladesh
In office
21 April 1977 – 30 May 1981
Prime Minister Mashiur Rahman (Acting)
Shah Azizur Rahman
Preceded by Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem
Succeeded by Abdus Sattar
Personal details
Born 19 January 1936(1936-01-19)
Bagbari, British Empire (now Bangladesh)
Died 30 May 1981(1981-05-30) (aged 45)
Chittagong, Bangladesh
Political party Nationalist Party
Spouse(s) Khaleda Zia
Alma mater D. J. Science College
Pakistan Military Academy
Command and Staff College
Profession Public Service
Religion Islam
Military service
Allegiance Pakistan
Bangladesh Forces
Service/branch Pakistan Army
Bangladesh Army
Years of service 1953–1977
Rank Lieutenant General
Awards Bir Uttom


Ziaur Rahman, commissioned military officer by career, attained the rank of Lieutenant General before retiring and then assuming the office of the presidency of Bangladesh. During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Zia served in the Khemkaran sector in Punjab as the commander of a Pakistani company unit of 300–500 soldiers. The sector was the scene of the most intense battles between the rival armies. The Pakistani government awarded Zia's unit with the highest numbers of gallantry awards for heroic performances during the war. Ziaur Rahman himself won the distinguished and prestigious Hilal-e-Jurat medal, and his unit won 2 Sitara-e-Jurat medals and 9 Tamgha-e-Jurat medals from the Army for their brave roles in the 1965 War with India.

During the afternoon of 25 March 1971, when the West Pakistani Army started a genocide was still sporadic against the Bengalis of East Pakistan, Major Zia revolted and announced this in front of the soldiers of his regiment. On evening of 27 March, Major Zia's unit (2/5 East Bengal Regiment) and members of the EPRarrived the Kalurghat radio station in Chittagong from where a number of people already read out Declaration of Independence on behalf of their great leader Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and rad out the declaration independence of Bangladesh. On the early morning of 28 March 1971, radio stations repeated Zia's original declaration of independence in the name of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. After the declaration, the war broke all out, Ziaur Rahman served as the commander of sector no. 1 for a month and then set up his HQ at Sabroom, Tripura. At the end of May Zia was transferred to Teldhala, north of Roumari, he built Sector 11 and commanded it along with 'Z' Force Brigade. He moved with his brigade to Sylhet for operations against the Pakistan Army on 10 October, when he handed the sector over to Major Abu Taher. Recognized as a war hero in Bangladesh, the government of Bangladesh honored him with the second highest gallantry award Bir Uttom in 1972 and was made brigade commander in Comilla. A high-ranking accomplished officer in the Bangladesh Army, Zia was appointed deputy chief of army staff in 1973. After being appointed chief of staff in 1975 by the Mushtaq government, a coup led by Khaled Musharraf, had Zia arrested. Zia was rescued by members of No. 2 Artillery Battery and confined there for safety. After Brigadier Khaled Musharraf was killed by another uprising and mutiny by disgrunteled members of the army inside Dhaka Cantonment led by former freedom fighter retired Lt.Col. Taher, who was at the time JSD leader created a serious chaos. Zia reorganised himself, took full control of the situation and brought down the chaos to a standstill. Major General returned to his post of Army chief and declared a State of Emergency and Martial Law and announced himself as Deputy Chief Martial Law Administrator. Chief Justice of Bangladesh was handed over the charge of the President of Bangladesh. Ziaur Rahaman assumed the office of the President of the country in 1977 and won a popular referendum held in 1978 in support of his policies and leadership. He engaged himself in politics by floating a political party that came to be known as Jagodal. Later he founded the Bangladesh Nationalist Party. Zia won widespread popular support for stabilising the nation and leading it in a new direction. Zia who turned out to be a right-wing politician, established free market economic policies in a 19-point program of industrialisation and development. For achieving popular support, he adopted policies bringing the government increasingly under Islam, which he included in the national constitution. A popular leader, Zia was assassinated in 1981 in an abortive military coup.

Early life

Ziaur Rahman was born in the village of Bagbari in the Bogra District of the northwest Bangladesh. His father, Mansur Rahman, was a chemist working for a government department in Kolkata. Zia's childhood was divided between living in the village and the city. He was later enrolled into the Hare School in Kolkata. With the partition of the British-Indian sub-continent in 1947, Mansur Rahman with his family returned to East Bengal, which became part of the new state of Pakistan. The family later moved to Karachi, the federal capital located in Sindh West Pakistan, where Mansur Rahman had been transferred to work for the Government of Pakistan. Zia was enrolled in the Academy School in Karachi.

Zia spent his adolescent years in Karachi and enrolled in the D.J. College there in 1953. In the same year, he entered the Pakistan Military Academy in Kakul as an officer cadet. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Pakistan Army in 1955. After serving for two years in Karachi, he was transferred to the East Bengal Regiment in 1957. He attended West Germany and UK military training schools. In 1960, his marriage was arranged to Khaleda Khanum, a young Bengali girl from the Dinajpur District who was 15 years old. Khaleda Zia remained with her parents in East Pakistan to complete her studies and joined her husband in Karachi in 1965. During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Zia served in the Khemkaran sector in Punjab as the commander of a company unit of 300–500 soldiers. The sector was the scene of the most intense battles between the rival armies. Zia's unit won one of the highest numbers of gallantry awards for heroic performances. Ziaur Rahman himself won the distinguished and prestigious Hilal-e-Jurat medal, and his unit won 2 Sitara-e-Jurat medals and 9 Tamgha-e-Jurat medals from the Army for their brave roles in the 1965 War with India.

In 1966, Zia was appointed military instructor at the Pakistan Military Academy, later going on to attend the prestigious Command and Staff College in Quetta, where he completed a course in command and tactical warfare. Advocating that the Pakistan Army make greater efforts to recruit and encourage Bengali military officers, Zia helped raise two Bengali battalions during his stint as instructor. Trained for high-ranking command posts, Zia joined the 2nd East Bengal regiment as its second-in-command at Joydevpur in 1969. Although sectarian tensions between East and West Pakistan were intensifying, Zia travelled to West Germany to receive advanced military and command training with the German Army.

Zia returned to Pakistan the following year, and witnessed political turmoil and regional division. East Pakistan had been devastated by the 1970 Bhola cyclone, and the population had been embittered by the slow response of the central government. The political conflict between Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's Awami League, which had won a majority in the 1970 elections, the President Yahya Khan and West Pakistani politician Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had brought sectarian tensions to a climax. Sheikh Mujib laid claim to form a government, but Yahya Khan postponed the convening of the legislature under pressure from West Pakistani politicians. Bengali civil and military officers had alleged institutional discrimination through the 1960s, and now distrust had divided the Pakistani Army. Upon his return, Zia attained the rank of Major and was transferred to the 8th East Bengal regiment stationed in Chittagong to serve as its second-in-command.

Sector Commander of Bangladesh Forces

Following the failure of last-ditch talks, Yahya Khan declared martial law and ordered the army to crack down on Bengali political activities and arrested Sheikh Mujib on the early mornings of March 26, 1971. He then joined the war of liberation on 27 March 1971, forced by his Bengali fighters. During the evening hours Zia rushed to protect the pro-liberation radio station at Kalurghat, Chittagong. Later during the night of March 27, 1971, Ziaur Rahman made the first official declaration of independence of Bangladesh and declared himself head of the provisional revolutionary government of Bangladesh, against the Pakistani occupation army. Later on 28 March he again made another declaration which read:

This is Shadhin Bangla Betar Kendro. I, Major Ziaur Rahman, do, hereby declare the independence of Bangladesh on behalf of our great leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.

Zia organised an infantry unit gathering all Bengali soldiers from military and EPR units in Chittagong. He designated it Sector No. 1 with its HQ in Sabroom. A few weeks later, it was restructured officially under Bangladesh Forces as the sector in the Chittagong and Hill Tracts area, under General M. A. G. Osmani, the Supreme Commander of Bangladesh Forces, of the Provisional Government of Bangladesh HQ'd at 8 Theatre Road, Calcutta, WB, India. On June 30, 1971 Zia was appointed the commander of the first conventional brigade of the Bangladesh Forces, which was named "Z Force", after the first initial of his name, followed by K-forces in August and S-force in September, named after Major Khaled Musharrafand Major Shafiullah respectively. His brigade consisted of 1st, 3rd and 8th East Bengali regiments, enabling Zia to launch major attacks on Pakistani forces. Having earned a reputation for courageous leadership during the course of the war and reading the declaration of independence of Bangladesh in a critical time , Zia was awarded the Bir Uttom, the second-highest military honour by the Government of Bangladesh . He was given command of a brigade stationed in Comilla, and in 1974 June he was appointed deputy chief of army staff. He was later promoted to the rank of Major General by the end of 1973. As a high-ranking commander, Zia oversaw the training and development of the army.

Coup of 1975 and its aftermath

On August 15, 1975 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his family were killed by a group of military officers. One of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's cabinet ministers Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad was appointed the president and, subsequently, Major General Ziaur Rahman was appointed as the army chief after removal of Major General K M Shafiullah. However, the coup of 15 August caused a period of instability and unrest in Bangladesh and more so across the ranks and files of the army. Brigadier Khaled Mosharraf and the Dhaka Brigade under Colonel Shafat Jamil made a counter-coup on November 3, 1975, and Ziaur Rahman was forced to resign and was put under house arrest. A third coup was staged under Colonel Abu Taher and a group of socialist military officers and supporters of the left-wing National Socialist Party on November 7, called the "National Revolution and Solidarity Day" (Sipoy-Janata Biplob) (Soldiers and People's Coup). Brigadier Khaled Mosharraf was killed and Colonel Jamil arrested, while Colonel Taher freed Ziaur Rahman and re-appointed him as army chief. Following a major meeting at the army headquarters, an interim government was formed with Justice Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem as chief martial law administrator and Zia, Air Vice Marshal M. G. Tawab and Rear Admiral M. H. Khan as his deputies. Zia also took on the portfolios of home affairs, finance, industry and information along with becoming the army chief of staff. However, discipline in the army had totally collapsed and it was difficult to disarm the soldiers and put them back to the barracks. Fearing that Colonel Abu Taher, who in fact rescued him few months earlier, would attempt to organise another revolt, Zia ordered his arrest. Following a secret trial in a military court, Zia authorised the execution of Colonel Taher on July 21, 1976. Zia became the chief martial law administrator following Justice Sayem's elevation to the presidency on November 19, 1976. He tried to integrate the armed forces, giving repatriates a status appropriate to their qualifications and seniority. While this angered some veterans of the Mukti Bahini, who had rapidly reached high positions following liberation in 1971, Zia defused potential threats from discontented officers by sending them on diplomatic missions abroad.

President of Bangladesh

Major General Ziaur Rahman became the 7th President of Bangladesh on April 21, 1977 following Justice Sayem's resignation on grounds of "ill health", which many believed was simply a pretext for Zia's rise to power with army's backing. Although Sayem had held the title of president, historians believe it was Zia who exercised real power from the cantonment. Sayem had promised early elections, but Zia postponed the plans. The years of disorder had left most of Bangladesh's state institutions in disarray, with constant threats of military coups amidst strikes and protests. Assuming full control of the state, Zia banned political parties, censored the media, re-imposed martial law and ordered the army to arrest dissidents. Martial law restored order across the country to a large measure and as Zia crushed several attempted uprisings with ruthless measures, discipline was finally restored in the army.

In late September 1977, a group of Japanese Red Army terrorists hijacked an airplane and forced it to land in Dhaka. On September 30, while the attention of the government was riveted on this event, a mutiny broke out in Bogra. Although the mutiny was quickly quelled on the night of October 2, a second mutiny occurred in Dhaka. The mutineers unsuccessfully attacked Zia's residence, captured Dhaka Radio for a short time and killed a number of air force officers at Dhaka international airport, where they were gathered for negotiations with the hijackers. The army quickly put down the rebellion, but the government was severely shaken. Government intelligence had failed and Zia promptly dismissed both the military and the civilian intelligence chiefs. Special tribunals dealt harshly with the large groups of bandits, smugglers and guerrilla bands operating across the country. The size of Bangladeshi police forces was doubled and the strength of the army increased from 50,000 to 90,000 soldiers.

When Ziaur Rahman assumed the presidency after legalizing military coups and the revival of the multiparty system was seen again he appointed Hussain Muhammad Ershad as the new Chief of Army Staff, promoting him to the rank of Lieutenant General. Viewed as a professional soldier with no political aspirations (because of his imprisonment in former West Pakistan during the Bangladesh Liberation War) and having a talent for Bengali speech writing, Ershad soon became Zia's closest politico-military counselor.

Domestic and foreign policies

Zia had taken charge of a nation suffering from severe poverty, chronic unemployment, shortages and economic stagnation. Muting the state's commitment to socialism, Zia announced a "19-point programme" which emphasised self-reliance, rural development, decentralisation and population control. Zia worked energetically and spent much of his time traveling throughout the country, preaching the "politics of hope" by continually urging all Bangladeshis to work harder and to produce more. Zia focused on boosting agricultural and industrial production, especially in food and grains, and to integrate rural development through a variety of programs, of which population planning was the most important. Working with the proposals of international lending agencies, he launched an ambitious rural development program in 1977, which included a highly visible and popular food-for-work program. He promoted private sector development, exports growth and the reversing of the collectivisation of farms. His government reduced quotas and restrictions on agriculture and industrial activities. Zia launched major projects to construct irrigation canals, power stations, dams, roads and other public works. Directing his campaign to mobilise rural support and development, Zia established Gram Sarkar (Village Councils) system of self-government and the "Village Defence Party" system of security and crime prevention. Programmes to promote primary and adult education on a mass scale were initiated and focused mainly across rural Bangladesh. During this period, Bangladesh's economy achieved fast economic and industrial growth.

Zia began reorienting Bangladesh's foreign policy, addressing the concerns of nationalists who believed that Bangladesh was reliant on Indian economic and military aid. Zia withdrew from his predecessors' affinity with the Soviet bloc, developing closer relations with the United States and Western Europe. Zia also moved to harmonise ties with Saudi Arabia and the People's Republic of China, who had opposed Bangladesh's creation and had not recognised it till 1975. Zia also dropped the demands of reparations and an official apology demanded by Sheikh Mujib and moved to normalise relations with Pakistan. While distancing Bangladesh from India, Zia sought to improve ties with other Islamic nations. Zia's move towards Islamic state policies improved the nation's standing in the Middle East. Zia also proposed an organisation of the nations of South Asia to bolster economic and political co-operation at a regional level. This proposal materialised in 1985 under the Presidency of Hussain Muhammad Ershad with the creation of the South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation in Dhaka.

Politics for development

Ziaur Rahman's philosophy of statesmanship was reflected in the coinage of the term politics for development. This was to bring an end to what is called "power politics", since he observed how ownership of the government offered an easy means for misappropriating public wealth through rent-seeking activities. He travelled thousands of miles across the country on foot to drive home his message. He addressed countless public gatherings, large and small, to encourage people to work hard for growth and development. His approach was quite idealistic in nature. His khal kata karmasuchi, for controlling the menace of annual flood, was unique and he engendered participation of people form all walks of life. Awami League leader Mohiuddin Khan Alamgir became a blue eyed boy of the president with the Ulshi Jadunathput Project which was one of the exemplary success story of this khal kata karmasuchi. Mohiuddin Khan Alamgir, then Deputy Commissioner of Jessore district, planned and implemented the project with illustrative success. The country registered significant rise in food production and near-autarky was achieved by 1978.

Islam and nationalism

Zia moved to lead the nation in a new direction, significantly different from the ideology and agenda of Sheikh Mujib. He issued a proclamation order amending the constitution, increasing the direct influence and role of Islam on the government. In the preamble, he inserted the salutation "Bismillahir-Rahmaanir-Rahim" ("In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful"). In Article 8(1) and 8(1A) the statement "absolute trust and faith in Almighty Allah"' was added, replacing the commitment to secularism. Socialism was redefined as "economic and social justice". Zia further introduced provisions to allow Muslims to practice the social and legal injunctions of the Shariat and Sunnah. In Article 25(2), Zia introduced the principle that '"the state shall endeavour to consolidate, preserve and strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries based on Islamic solidarity." Zia's edits to the constitution redefined the nature of the republic from the secularism laid out by Sheikh Mujib and his supporters. Islamic religious education was introduced as a compulsory subject in Bangladeshi schools, with provisions for non-Muslim students to learn of their own religions.

In public speeches and policies that he formulated, Zia began expounding "Bangladeshi nationalism", as opposed to Mujib's assertion of a Bengali national identity. Zia emphasised the national role of Islam (as practised by the majority of Bangladeshis). Claiming to promote an inclusive national identity, Zia reached out to non-Bengali minorities such as the Santals, Garos, Manipuris and Chakmas, as well as the Urdu-speaking peoples of Bihari origin. However, many of these groups were predominantly Hindu and Buddhist and were alienated by Zia's promotion of political Islam. In an effort to promote cultural assimilation and economic development, Zia appointed a Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Commission in 1976, but resisted holding a political dialogue with the representatives of the hill tribes on the issue of autonomy and cultural self-preservation. On July 2, 1977 Ziaur Rahman organised a tribal convention to promote a dialogue between the government and tribal groups.

After the formation of Bangladesh Nationalist Party, Zia took initiative for formation of political institutes and sponsored workshops for the youth to get active political lessons on Bangladeshi nationalism. In such an workshop in September 1980, Zia spoke to the learners,

Eventually an effective political ideology cannot be based on any certain religion. Religion can offer some contribution, but an entire political activism cannot be oriented in accordance with religion. Political history of this region has the example of religion-based politics attempted in Pakistan and it failed. Not only in Islam, people in other religions of many regions try to keep on politics based on religion. It's not right. It's important and it should be remembered.


As Bangladesh's ruler, Zia enacted several controversial measures, some to discipline the army, some to unify the nation and some to win the support of Islamic political parties. However, he took no action against Awami League leaders who were infamous for corruption. When he re-introduced multy-party politics. He allowed Sheikh Hasina, the exile daughter of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman to return to Bangladesh. However, he did not disapprove Jamaat-e-Islami, which had been earlier banned by Sheikh Mujib. Jamaat-e-Islami was widely believed to have collaborated with the Pakistani army, which committed war crimes, and in unsuccessfully preventing Bangladesh's independence. Golam Azam, the exiled chief of the Jammat-e-Islami, was allowed to come back to Bangladesh in July 1978 with a Pakistani passport on a visitor's visa, and he remained in Bangladesh following its expiry. No court case was lodged for his trial over his alleged role in committing wartime atrocities. Also, some Jamaat leaders were appointed in ministerial posts. Zia also rehabilitated Shah Azizur Rahman, a high-profile opponent of the creation of Bangladesh, and several men accused of murdering Sheikh Mujib. The Indeminity Ordinance proclaimed by President Mustaque was ratified in the Parliament when Zia's party BNP had a landslide victory in the national election of 1979. The ordinance thereby became Indemnity Act.

During the tenure of President Hussain Muhammad Ershad, the Indemnity Act was incorporated as the 5th amendment to the constitution, legalising the military coups, rule under martial law and other political events between 1975 to 1979. Zia also gave Sheikh Mujib's assassins Major Dalim, Major Rashid, and Major Faruk jobs in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and in subsequent years they were appointed ambassadors of Bangladesh to African and Middle Eastern nations. Shah Azizur Rahman was appointed Bangladesh's prime minister, serving through Zia's tenure in the presidency.


Chittagong Circuit House

Large processions follow the funeral of Zia

During his term of power, Zia was criticised for ruthless treatment of his army opposition. Although he enjoyed overall popularity and public confidence, Zia's rehabilitation of some of the most controversial men in Bangladesh aroused fierce opposition from the supporters of the Awami League and veterans of the Mukti Bahini. Amidst speculation and fears of unrest, Zia went on tour to Chittagong on May 29, 1981 to help resolve an intra-party political dispute in the regional BNP. Zia and his entourage stayed overnight at the Chittagong Circuit House. In the early hours of the morning of May 30, he was assassinated by a group of army officers along with six bodyguards and two aides.


After the assassination of Ziaur Rahman on 30 May 1981, Ershad remained loyal to the government and ordered the army to suppress the coup attempt of Zia's associates led by Major General Abul Manzoor.

Major General Abul Manzoor was shot to death by army soldiers (name were not disclosed till 2010 by government). A military investigation kicked off immediately and 13 army officers were hanged while 19 officiers were ousted from army on 31 October 1981. Officers who were removed from army were Brigadier Abu Said Matiul Hannan Shah, Brigadier AKM Azizul Islam, Brigadier Gias Uddin Ahmed Chodhury (bir bikram), Brigadier Abu jafar aminul huque (bir bikram), Colonel Md. Bajlul goni patwari (bir protik), Lt. Colonel AS Enamul huque, Lt.Colonel Md. Jainul abedin, Lt. Colonel Md. Abdul hannan (bir pratik), Major Manjur ahmed (bir pratik), Major Wakar hassan (bir pratik), Major Md. Abdul jalil, Major Md. Asaduzzaman, Major Rafiqul islam, Major MD. Abdus salam, Major AKM Rezaul islam (bir pratik), Captain ASM Abdul hai, Captain Jahirul huque khan (bir pratik), Captain Majharul huque, Lt. Abul hasem

Zia was buried at the Chandrima Uddan in the locality of Sher-e-Banglanagar in Dhaka. People in large processions attended the funeral and paid their final respects. Vice President Abdus Sattar immediately succeeded him as the acting president.

Criticism and legacy

Mausoleum of Ziaur Rahman in Chandrima Uddan in Dhaka. Seen on the walls are posters of his widow, Begum Khaleda Zia.

Ziaur Rahman is considered one of the most important and controversial political leaders of Bangladesh. President Zia re-introduced a very limited form of multi-party democracy in Bangladesh after the country's founder, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, resorted to de facto one-party rule through BAKSAL in 1975. As president, General Zia notoriously legislated the Indemnity Bill, pardoning the subsequently-convicted killers of President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in August 1975. Also deeply controversial is Zia's rehabilitation of persons and political groups that had collaborated with the Pakistani army. Zia is also criticised for creating a "magna democracy", which remained largely beholden to his political party. Because other political parties like Awami League has internal tension barring its greater participation in politics. In a verdict passed on August 30, 2005 the Dhaka High Court declared the seizures of power by military coups between 1975 and 1979, including Zia's military regime as "unlawful and unconstitutional." Zia's martial law decrees, his ascendancy to the presidency in 1977 and the referendum held in 1978 were declared "unknown to the constitution." The court ruling overruled the Indemnity Act by which these very events were accorded a legal status and enshrined in the constitution.

Former US President Ronald Reagan praised him for his leadership and said that "The United States -- indeed the world -- had come to respect President Zia's profound and compassionate commitment to a better life for his people and his dedication to the rule of law. His wisdom in international affairs will be sorely missed".

While credited for ending the disorder of the final years of Sheikh Mujib's rule, Zia is assailed by his critics for suppressing opposition. However, Zia's economic reforms are credited with rebuilding the economy and his move towards Islamisation brought him the support of Bangladesh's far-right, Muslim fundamentalist factions, including former opponents to the Liberation War. His nationalist vision also appealed to many who resented the nation's strategic alliance with India and the Soviet Union. Moving away from Mujib's secularism, Zia asserted an Islamic political identity for Bangladesh and of membership in the wider community of Muslim nations. However, these measures also isolated and embittered many ethnic and religious minorities in Bangladesh, laying in the opinion of many historians the foundations of future communal and ethnic conflicts. It is generally acknowledged that he lived a simple life, which included opting to have his food supplied from the army canteen.

Ziaur Rahman is survived by his wife Begum Khaleda Zia and his sons Tareq Rahman and Arafat Rahman. Begum Khaleda Zia became the head of the BNP and organised a coalition of political parties opposed to Ershad's regime. In elections held in 1991, Begum Khaleda Zia led the BNP to victory and became prime minister. She lost the 1996 elections to the Awami League's Sheikh Hasina Wajed, the daughter of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, but returned to power in 2001. Tareq Rahman serves as BNP senior joint secretary, regarded by many as the architect of the BNP's 2001 election victory. Zia is the namesake of many public institutions, formerly the Zia International Airport in Dhaka, which is the busiest airport in the nation. Zia has also been honoured by the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation for his statesmanship and vision.

Actor Humayun Faridi 1952

Humayun Faridi (Bangla: হুমায়ূন ফরীদি) [Alternative: Humayun Faridee] is an popular actor in Bangladeshi TV drama, theatre and cinema. He is well-known for his villain roles in Bangladeshi drama and cinema. Faridi was previously married to Suborna Mustafa, an actress in Bangladesh, until they divorced in 2008.

TV works

  • Nil Nakshar Shandhany (1982)
  • Durbin die dekhun (1982)
  • Bhangoner shabdha suni(1983)
  • Bakulpur koto Dur(1985)
  • Mohuar Mon (1986)
  • Sat Ashmaner Shiri (1986)
  • Akdin hohat (1986)
  • Chanmiar negative positive (1986)
  • Ojattra (1987)
  • Songsaptak (1987-88)
  • Pathar Shomoy(1989)
  • Dui bhai (1990)
  • Shiter Pakhi (1991)
  • Kothao Keu Nei (1990)
  • Shomudre Gangchil (1993)
  • Tini Akjon (2005)
  • Chandragrasto (2006)
  • Kachher Manush (2006)
  • Mohona (2006)
  • Vober Hat (2007)
  • Srinkhal (2010)


  • Hulia
  • Dohon
  • Shontrash
  • Bachelor
  • JoyJatra
  • Shamolchaya
  • Bhohubrihi
  • Ekattorer Jishu
  • Mayer Morjada

Theatrical Plays

  • Montasir Fantasy
  • Kirtonkhola
  • Keramot Mongol
  • Durto wee

Bangladeshi Singer Pilu Momtaz 2011

Pilu Montaz (? - May 23, 2011) was a Bangladeshi singer, who helped popularize pop music in Bangladesh in the years following the country's independence. The Bengali-language pop music is now referred to as "Bangla Pop."

Montaz was born in Dhaka. She was the third of seven children born to the late Bangladeshi singer Ustad Momtaz Ali.

She launched her pop music career in the years immediately following Bangladesh's independence in 1971. Momtaz is widely credited with popularizing the local Bangla Pop together with other contemporary singers, including Fakir Alamgir, Azam Khan, Najma Zaman and Ferdous Wahid. Her major hits included "Ekdin Tho Choley Jabo," "Chara Gaachh-e Phool Phuitachhey," and "Majhi Nao Chhaira Dey," a song written by Bangladeshi songwriter and poet, Jasimuddin. The Daily Star, one of the country's major newspapers, cited Montaz as an influence on prominent female Bangladeshi pop singers of the 2000s. She also covered some Bangladeshi and Bengali folk music, including "Nani Go Nani," and "Orey Sampanwala."

Her final public performance took place at the 2010 Citycell-Channel i Music Awards. Momtaz took the stage at the awards show with Fakir Alamgir and Ferdous Wahid to perform the song, "Ek Second-er Nai Bhorosha," as a tribute to the late singer, Firoz Shai.

Pilu Momtaz died from a heart attack at Apollo Hospital in Dhaka on May 22, 2011, at the age of 52. She was survived by her husband, Lieutenant Colonel Anwaruzzaman, and their daughter, Homayra Zaman Mou. Her funeral was held DOHS Baridhara Jaam-e Mosque with burial at the Banani cemetery adjacent to her father's grave.

Indian Actress Bhama 1988

Bhama (born Rekhita on 23 May 1988) is an Indian film actress, who has mainly appeared in Malayalam films. She debuted in 2007 through Nivedyam directed by A. K. Lohithadas.

Born Rekitha
May 23, 1988 (1988-05-23) (age 23)
Manarkadu, Kottayam, Kerala
Occupation Actress
Years active 2007 - Present
Parents Rajendra Kurup

She is from Manarkadu near Kottayam. She is the daughter of late Rajendra Kurup.She has two sisters, both elder to her.Her mother is a housewife. Before her entry into the film industry, she was the host of a popular show on Kairali TV titled "Thaali". She has also acted in a Christian devotional album. Director Lohithadas, whom she considers her Mentor/Guru cast her in Nivedyam, her first movie. Her second film was Hareendran Oru Nishkalankan directed by Vinayan, in which she was cast opposite Manikuttan.she paired with Vineeth Sreenivasan in Cycle directed by Johny Antony. The film was a major success and was touted as 'the first genuine hit of 2008'.


  • 2007 - Asianet Film Awards- Best Star Pair Award, Nivedyam
  • 2007 - Best Newcomer - (Nivedyam) Sathyan Memorial Film Awards
  • 2007 - best Newcomer - Nivedyam - FILM CRITICS AWARD
  • 2007 - Best Newcomer - Nivedyam - ALA AWARD
  • 2007 - Best Newcomer - Nivedyam - VANITHA NIPPON AWARD
  • 2008 - Best screen pair - Cycle - AMMA AWARD,DUBAI
  • 2009 - Best screen pair - Ivar Vivahitharayal - MATHRUBHUMI,AMRITHA AWARD


Year Film Role Language Notes
2007 Nivedyam Sathya Bhama Malayalam
Hareendran Oru Nishkalankan Indhu Malayalam
Cycle Annie Malayalam
2008 Ellam Avan Seyal Chinthamani Tamil
One Way Ticket Sunanda Malayalam
2009 Colors Pooja Malayalam
Ivar Vivahitharayal Kavya Malayalam
Oru Black And White Kudumbam Minnu Malayalam
2010 Sakudumbam Shyamala Nandana Malayalam
Neelambari Parvathy Malayalam
Khilafath Amina Malayalam
Koottukar Aswathy Malayalam
College Days Athira Malayalam
2011 Janapriyan
Telugu Filming
Sevar Kodi
Tamil Filming
Sevens (film)
Malayalam Filiming
Swapnangalil Haizel Mary Haizel Mary Malayalam Not yet released

BNP Leader Khaleda Zia 1945

Begum Khaleda Zia (Bengali: খালেদা জিয়া) (born 21 May 1945) is the former First Lady of Bangladesh (1977–1981), and then Prime Minister of Bangladesh, having served from 1991 to 1996, becoming the first woman in the country's history and second in the Muslim world (only after Ms Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan) to head a democratic government as prime minister. She served again from 2001 to 2006. She is the widow of the assassinated President and former army chief Ziaur Rahman, and leads his old party Bangladesh Nationalist Party.

Of 39 years of independence of Bangladesh, she has ruled the country for about 10 years (being the longest serving Prime Minister of Bangladesh). She has been elected to five separate parliamentary constituencies in the general elections of 1991, 1996, and 2001.

Khaleda Zia (Putul) was born on 21 May 1945 to Iskandar Majumder and Taiyaba Majumder in Birbhum district of West Bengal province, India and later migrated with her family to Dinajpur District. Khaleda Zia is the youngest in a family of four. She has two brothers, Major (Retd.) Sayeed Iskandar, a retired military official, and Shamim Iskander, an engineer of Biman Bangladesh Airlines, and two elder sisters, late Khurshid Jahan Hoq (Chocolate Aapa), former Women's Welfare Minister, and another sister who is deceased. The family originally hails from Fulgazi Upazila of Feni District, Bangladesh. She studied in Dinajpur Government Girls High School and failed in the S.S.C. Examination. In 1960, when she was 21, she married Ziaur Rahman. She is the current leader of the opposition party.

Former president Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad made her husband Major General Ziaur Rahman Chief of Staff of Bangladesh Army after Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, who subsequently assumed power as Chief Martial Law Administrator following a series of military coups on and following National Revolution and Solidarity Day.

Until the assassination of her husband, Ziaur Rahman, in an abortive military coup in Chittagong on 30 May 1981, Khaleda Zia had taken little interest in either politics or public life. Even when her husband assumed power after the political changes in 1975, she remained a shy and withdrawn housewife spending most of her time raising her two sons, Tareq Rahman (Pino) and Arafat Rahman (Coco).

After the assassination of Ziaur Rahman, Vice-President Justice Abdus Sattar took over as the Acting President and also as Chairman of the BNP. Chief of Staff of Bangladesh Army Lieutenant General Hossain Mohammad Ershad overthrew Justice Sattar on March 24, 1982.

In March 1983, Justice Sattar appointed Khaleda Zia as vice-chairman of the BNP. In February 1984, she became the chairperson as Justice Sattar retired from politics. On August 10, 1984 the party elected her the chairperson.

Under the leadership of Begum Zia, the BNP formed a seven-party alliance in 1983 and launched a relentless struggle against the autocratic regime of Lieutenant General Hussain Mohammad Ershad. During the 9-year-long struggle against Ershad, Begum Zia did not compromise with his autocratic and illegitimate government. For her strict adherence to the principles, the government restricted her movements by using prohibitive laws. She was detained seven times in eight years. But undaunted, Begum Zia continued to provide leadership in the movement for ousting Ershad. Like Zia before him, Ershad attempted to give his rule a civilian and democratic face, but Khaleda Zia boycotted all elections during his rule. Khaleda was detained seven times during almost nine years of autocratic rule under President Ershad before his resignation on 6 December 1990.

In the face of a mass upsurge spearheaded by alliances led by Begum Zia and Sheikh Hasina, President Ershad at last handed over power to a neutral caretaker government on 6 December 1990. In the parliamentary elections held under this government on 27 February 1991, Bangladesh Nationalist Party emerged victorious as a single majority party. Begum Zia contested from five constituencies in three consecutive parliamentary elections and won in all seats. This is a unique feat in the history of elections in the country.

Prime minister

First term

Zia with the then U.S. president Bill Clinton

Zia with the President of Brazil, Lula da Silva.

With a unanimous vote cutting across all political lines, the BNP-led government restored the parliamentary system through the 12th amendment to the Constitution in 1991. A neutral caretaker government oversaw elections on February 27, 1991 that were broadly considered to be free, fair and truly democratic. Khaleda Zia became Bangladesh's first female Prime Minister with the support of the majority of the members of the parliament.

While in power, Begum Zia's government made considerable progress in the education sector, including introduction of free and compulsory primary education, tuition-free education for girls up to class ten, stipend for female students and the Food for Education program. It also goes to the credit of her government that during this period, the tree plantation had become a nationwide social movement. Further, it was in this period that the construction of the Jamuna Bridge was started. Khaleda Zia played a commendable role in revitalizing the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. It also increased the age limit for entry into the civil service from 27 years to 30 years and made highest budgetary allocation in the education sector.

Second term

She became Prime Minister for the second consecutive term after the BNP had a landslide victory on February 15, 1996 general election to the sixth Jatiya Sangshad. The election was, however, boycotted by all other major parties who were demanding that the elections be held under a neutral caretaker government, following allegations of rigging in a by-election held in 1994. Turnout was estimated at around 25%, though the government at the time claimed it to be much higher. The short-lived parliament hastily introduced the Caretaker Government through 13th amendment to the Constitution, and then was dissolved to pave the way for the parliamentary elections. In the June 12, 1996 polls, BNP lost to Sheikh Hasina's Awami League but emerged as the largest opposition party in the country's parliamentary history with 116 seats.

Third term

Aiming to return to power, the BNP formed a four-party alliance on January 6, 1999 with its former political foe the Jatiya Party, and the Islamic party of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh and the Islami Oikya Jot and launched several agitation programmes against the ruling Awami League. Khaleda Zia, like Ziaur Rahman has been criticized much for making alliance with Jamaat-e-Islami, the party which opposed the independence of Bangladesh in 1971 and formed Razakar, Al-Badar and Al-Shams team to help West Pakistan to kill thousands of innocent people including the intellectuals of Bangladesh. Around three million people were killed by the West Pakistan Army with the help of Razakars (collabortors), Al-Badars and Al-Shams in 1971 within nine months of war.

The four-party alliance then participated in the October 1, 2001 general elections and won the election with a two-third majority of seats in parliament and 46% of the vote (compared to the principal opposition party's 40%) and Khaleda Zia was once again sworn in as the Prime Minister of Bangladesh.

Khaleda Zia's third term was plagued by rising religious militancy, continuing its spiralling of corruption (including successive damning reports by Transparency International), a rise in alleged attacks on minority groups (such as Hindus and Ahmadiyas as documented by the US State Department and Amnesty International) and an increasingly explosive political environment. A particularly controversial piece of legislation introduced by the government was the banning of Ahmadiya publications in January 2004, which attracted considerable concern from international observers.

End of term

On October 27, 2006, Zia's term in office ended. The following day rioting broke out on the streets of central Dhaka following uncertainty over who would succeed her as Chief Advisor (Chief of Caretaker Government of Bangladesh). On the same day evening, a presidential statement declared that former Supreme Court Chief Justice Khondokar Mahmud Hasan (who had been due to take over as Chief Advisor) would not be assuming the role due to ill health. Subsequently, president Iajuddin Ahmed, assumed power as Chief Advisor on October 29, 2006.

After 2006

After tremendous domestic and international pressure and amid Awami League claims of partisanship, President Dr. Iajuddin Ahmed stepped down as Chief Adviser of the Caretaker Government of Bangladesh but remained as the President of Bangladesh. Elections scheduled for January 22 were postponed. The new caretaker government led by former Bangladesh Bank governor Dr. Fakhruddin Ahmed, in its fight against corruption, has targeted many of Ms Zia's BNP ministers.

Ms Zia's eldest son, Tareque Rahman (Pino), was also arrested in March 2007 for corruption. It was later reported that, beginning on April 9, the government barred other politicians from visiting Ms Zia's residence due to the state of emergency, imposed in January, which prohibits political activity. Youngest son of Ms Zia, Arafat Rahman (Coco), was arrested on April 16.

Since United News Bangladesh (UNB) carried unverified reports of Arafat's arrest on April 16, it cited unnamed 'family sources' as claiming Ms Zia was considering exile. UNB said speculation was mounting Ms Zia would relocate to Saudi Arabia. It also noted her brother, Major (Retd.) Sayeed Iskandar was attempting to negotiate her exit from Bangladesh with authorities from the interim administration. The New Nation newspaper carried a report on April 17 stating Khaleda had in fact agreed to go into exile in return for the release of her youngest son. The report said the Saudi government had expressed its willingness to accept Khaleda and her family members as royal guests. Meanwhile, Bangladesh's The Daily Star quoted an unnamed source who claimed Zia's decision to leave the nation meant authorities would now force Awami League president Sheikh Hasina, Zia's bitter rival who was then in the United States, to also embrace exile. All these reports about exile and government pressure on Ms Zia were denied by the government.

On April 19, Khondker Babul Chowdhury, a member of the BNP national executive committee, filed the appeal urging the court to order the government not to send Khaleda abroad against her wish and challenging the reported confinement of Khaleda to her house. On April 22 the High Court issued a rule on the government to explain within five days why the court will not direct the government to produce Khaleda Zia before the court to prove that she is not confined to her house. On April 25, in what was viewed as a reversal, the government said that Zia's movement was not restricted and that she had not been under any pressure to leave the country; it also dropped its ban on Hasina's return.

On May 7, the government was ordered by the High Court to explain restrictions on Ms Zia that were said to remain in place.

On July 17, the Anti Corruption Commission Bangladesh (ACC) sent notices to both MS Zia and Ms Hasina, requesting that details of their assets be submitted to the commission within one week.

Zia was asked to appear in court on September 27, 2007 in connection with a case for not submitting service returns for Daily Dinkal Publications Limited for years.

On September 2, 2007, a case was filed against Ms Zia by the interim government for corruption regarding the awarding of contracts to Global Agro Trade Company in 2003, and on September 3 she was arrested. Her youngest son Arafat Rahman (Coco) along with 11 others was also detained after police recorded a corruption case against them involving irregularities at Chittagong port. A bribery case was also filed against current Prime Minister of Bangladesh Sheikh Hasina (rival of Khaleda), detained in a special jail. On the same day, Ms Zia expelled party Secretary General Abdul Mannan Bhuiyan and Joint Secretary General Whip Ashraf Hossain for breaching party discipline. On September 30, Zia was granted bail by the High Court, which also ruled that the trial should be stopped on the grounds that the emergency laws could not be applied to her actions before they were imposed in January 2007. The government appealed this decision, however, and on October 4, 2007 the Supreme Court ruled that she should not be granted bail and that the trial should continue.

After Khaleda Zia was detained, party standing committee members chose former Finance Minister Saifur Rahman and former Water Resources minister Major (Rtd.) Hafizuddin Ahmed to lead the BNP for the time being; Zia's supporters did not recognize this. Bangladesh Election Commission subsequently invited Hafizuddin's faction, rather than Zia's, to participate in talks, effectively recognizing the former as the legitimate BNP. Zia challenged this in court, but her appeal was rejected on April 10, 2008.

Ms Zia's youngest son Arafat Rahman (Coco) was released in August 2008, and her eldest son Tareque Rahman (Pino) was released on bail on September 3, 2008. Ms Zia had been granted bail on two of her four cases by this point, but remained in jail because bail had not been granted for the other two. Her lawyers said on September 4 that they would also seek bail for the other two cases.

After Bangladesh general election, 2008

On 13 November 2010 she was evicted from her 37 years old, palatial Dhaka Cantonment residence upon an order from High Court Division of Bangladesh Supreme Court. This 2.72 acre (around 8.5 bigha) house was originally the residence of the Deputy Chief of Staff (DCS) of Bangladesh Army used by then DCS Major General Ziaur Rahman. He kept the same residence even after he had become the President of Bangladesh. Moreover, the post of DCS of Bangladesh Army was abolished in his tenure. After assassination of Ziaur Rahman this house was leased-for-life to her at only 101 by then Acting President Justice Abdus Sattar on 12 June 1981, along with another house (31 kaatha or 0.45 acre) in the leafy Gulshan Residential Area of Dhaka city, by then Former Army Chief of Bangladesh and Chief Martial Law Administrator Lieutenant General Hussain Mohammad Ershad in 15 June 1982. She is now planning to reside in 196 Gulshan Avenue, Block D, Gulshan Thana, Dhaka.

Magazine Opinion

In 2006, Forbes ranked Khaleda Zia at number 33 in its list of the 100 Most Powerful Women in the world.

Bangali Novelist Writer Manik Bandopadhyay 1908 - 1956

Manik Bandopadhyay (Bengali: মানিক বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়) (19 May 1908 - 3 December 1956) was an Indian Bengali novelist and is considered one of the founding fathers of modern Bangla fiction. During a short life of forty eight years, plagued simultaneously with ailment and financial crisis, he produced forty two novels and more than two hundred short-stories. His important works include Padma Nadir Majhi (Tr. The Boatman of Padma River) and Putul Nacher Etikatha (Tr. The Tale of Puppet Dance) and Chatushkone (Tr. Quadrilateral).

Born May 19, 1908(1908-05-19)
Dumka, Bihar, British India
Died December 3, 1956(1956-12-03) (aged 48)
Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Nationality Indian
Ethnicity Bengali Hindu
Occupation Writer
Religion Hinduism
Parents Harihar Bandyopadhyay (Father)
Neeroda Devi (Mother)

Manik Bandopadhay was born on 19 May 1908 in a small town called Dumka in the district of Santal Parganas in the state of Bihar in India. His original name is Prabodh Kumar Bandhopaddhay. His pen name is derived from his family nick 'Manik'. He was the fifth of the fourteen children (eight sons and six daughters) of his parents. His father was Harihar Bandopadhyay and his mother was Niroda Devi. Harihar was a government official and travelled across undivided Bengal in connection with his service which gave the author to experience life and living of different peoples of Bengal, in his early life.

Since his childhood Manik was carefree and adventurous in character. But he also possessed a very sensitive soul. He lost his mother on 28 May 1924 when he was only sixteen and this berevement left a deep mark in his psyche. After his mother's death, Manik became reckless and tie with his family grew thin.

The writer married Kamala Devi, the third daughter of Surendranath Chattopadhay. He had two sons and two daughters.


Manik passed Entrance examinaiton from the Midnapore Zilla School in 1926 securing first division with letter marks in both compulsory and optional Mathematics. In the same year he got admitted in Welleslyan Mission College at Bankura. Earlier he has also studied in Kanthi Model School in Tangail.

In Welleslyan College Manik came in contact with a professor called Jackson.Being influenced by him Manik read Bible and got rid of religious inferiority. In 1928 he passed I. Sc. with first division.

He got admitted to the B.Sc. course in Mathematics at the Presidency College, Calcutta with the inspiration of his father.


Writing was the only source of income for Manik Bandopadhyay throughout his life and hence he languished perpetual poverty. However, for a short while he tried to enhance his earning through involvement with one or two literary magazines. He worked as editor of Nabarun for a few months in 1934. During 1937-38, he worked as Assisatnt Editor of literary magazine Bangasree. Also he had established a printing and publishing house in 1939 which turned out to be a short-lived endeavour. Also, he worked as Publicity Assistant for the Government of India in 1943.


Manik died on December 03, 1956, at the age of 48. His funeral took place at Nimtala Shmashan Ghat. Since early life he had struggled with poverty and epilepsy. The signs of epilepsy first surfaced when he was engaged in writing Padma Nadir Majhi and Putul Nacher Etikatha. Continued and unabated ailment, problems and crises devastated his mental disposition and eventually he resorted to alcohol for respite, adding to his misery. On 3 December 1956, the author collapsed and fell into a coma. He was admitted to the Nilratan Government Hospital on 2 December where he died the next day. Following his death, a mourning meeting was held on 7 December, attended by a huge crowd.

Literary life

One day when he was sitting with his friends in their college canteen one of his friend told could he publish the story in "Bichitra" paper he said that he could publish his first story "Atshi mami". In those days "Bichitra" paper was famous & only famous writer could write. One day he went to "Bichitra" paper's office & posted the story on the editor's letter box.At the end of the story he wrote his name as Manik Bandhopadhay. After four months the story was published & the story became famous in Kolkata & from then he was popularly known as Manik Bandhopadhay.

His stories and novels were published in various literary magaziens of the then Bengal. They included Bichitra, Bangasree, Purbasha, AnandaBazaar Patrika, Jugantor, Satyajug, Probashi, Desh, Chaturanga, NoroNari, Notun Jiban, Bosumati, Golp-Bharati, Mouchak, Pathshala, Rang-Mashal, NoboShakti, Swadhinata, Agami, Kalantar, Parichaya, Notun Sahitya, Diganta, Sanskriti, Mukhopotro, Provati, Ononnya, Ultorath, Elomelo, Bharatbarsha, Modhyabitta, Sharodi, Sonar Bangla, Agami, Ononya, Krishak, Purnima, Rupantar and Swaraj.

During his lifetime, Manik published as many as fifty seven titles. He has also taken shots at composing poetry.

Theme & Style

His writing stands in stark contrast to that of other contemporary luminaries like Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay who portrayed life in rural Bengal in a gentle, lyrical light. Although he had some common grounds with Tarashankar Bandopadhyay, he distinguished himself with profouond and scintific into the lives of ordinary people. Manik's writing dealt with the pettiness and wretchedness of existence in a village context. His primary concern was the dark alleyways of the human mind, even among the supposedly simple village folk, and not the serene beauty of nature that was always in the background in his novels. In Putulnacher Etikatha he took on rather savagely the touchy topic of hypocrisy in villages: an elderly couple are canonised as saints after committing morpheine - induced suicide; the daughter of one of the village's elders gets married off to a wealthy businessman in Kolkata who treats her as a 'kept'woman, she develops a drinking habit and comes back to her old home just a shadow of her former self. However, the people around her keep pretending that nothing untoward has happened. Numerous other examples abound.

A pioneer of Bengali Novel

Shortly after making his debut in the world of fiction in 1935 through a short story titled Atshi Mami, Manik Bandopadhay embarked upon writing novels. Publication of Diba-Ratrir Kabya in 1935 and Padma Nadir Majhi and Putul Nacher Itikotha in 1936 established him as the most notable novelist Bengali literature since Bankimchandra, Rabindranath and Saratchandra. He distinguished himself with focus on the life of ordinary rural and urban people, with the colloquial language and with a neat narrative. He was a great story-teller who perfected his fiction with insight into human mind. In the earlier works he took a Freudian approach. In the later life, he showed influence of Marxist theory. His treatment of human sexuality in Chatushkone is path-breaking.

Putul Nacher Etikatha

Putul Nacher Etikatha is one of the most outstanding works of Manik Bandopadhyaya. In one of his letters Manik informed that this novel is an humble protest to those who tend to play with the life of human beings as if they are puppets.

It was serialized in the Bharatbarsha from Poush 1341 to Agrahayana 1342. D. M. Library of Calcutta published it in book form first in 1936. A movie was produced based on this great novel in 1949. The film was directed by Asit Bandopadhyay and produced by K. K. Productions.

Social and Political Views

Manik carefully read Marx and Engels and became a Marxist. He became an active politician of Marxism by joining the Communist Party of India in 1944. But he regretted being part of the increasingly hollow and tyrannical organization the Communist Party, later in his life.



He wrote 34 novels and around 180 short-stories in his short,stormy yet intensely prolific literary career of 27 years.

  • Janani (Tr. Mother-1935)
  • Diba-Ratrir Kabya(Tr. Poetry of Days and nights-1935)
  • Padma Nadir Majhi(Tr. The Boatman of River Padma1936)
  • Putul Nacher Itikatha (Tr.The Tale of Puppet Dance - 1936)
  • Jiboner Jotilota (Complicacies of Life - 1936)
  • Ahinsa(1941)
  • Dhorabandha Jiban (Tr. Routine Life - 1941)
  • Chatushkone(Tr. Quadrilateral - 1942)
  • Protibimbo (Tr. The Reflection - 1943)
  • Drapan (Tr. The Mirror - 1945)
  • Shorobasher Itikotha (Tr. A Tale of City Life - 1946)
  • Chinha (Tr. The Sign - 1947)
  • Jiyonto (Tr. Alive - 1950)
  • Pesha (Tr. The Profession - 1951)
  • Swadhinotar Swad (Tr. Taste of Freedom - 1951)
  • Pashapashi (Tr. Side by side - 1952)
  • Sarbojonin (Tr. Universal - 1952)
  • Nagpash (Tr. Serpent's Grasp - 1953)
  • Feriwala (Tr. Vendor on foot - 1953)
  • Arogya (Tr. Recovery - 1953)
  • Chalcholon (Tr. Life style - 1953)
  • Haraf (Tr. The Alphabet - 1954)
  • Holud Nodi Sobuj Bon (Tr. Yellow River Green Woods - 1956)
  • Mashul (Tr. The Penalty - 1956)
  • Majhir Chele(a novel for the adolescent readers)

Short Stories

  • Atashi Mami (1935)
  • Pragoitihashik (Tr. Pre-historic - 1937)
  • Mihi O Mota Kahini (1938)
  • Sarisrip (Tr. Amphibian - 1939)
  • Bou (Tr. The Bride - 1940)
  • Shamudrer Swad (Tr. The Taste of the Seas - 1943)
  • Bhejal (Tr. Adulterated - 1944)
  • Holudpora (1945)
  • Poristhiti (Tr. The Situation - 1946)
  • Khotian (Tr. The Report - 1947)
  • Matir Mashul (Tr. Earthen Penalty - 1948)
  • Choto Boro (Tr. The Big and the Small - 1948)
  • Lajuklota (Tr. A shy creeper - 1953)


  • Bhite-Mati (Tr. The Homestead - 1946)


  • Lekhoker Katha (Tr. The Writer's Statement - 1957)


  • Manik Bandopadhyay-er Kobita (Tr. The poems of Manik Bandopadhyay - 1970)

1.Diner kobita 2.Raater kobita 3.Dibaraatrir kabyo 4.Uttor dokkhin 5.gaachtolae 6.Buro santrasbadi 7.Cha 7.Prothom kobitar kahini 8.Raja o proja 8.Sundor 9.Shrabon maas 10.kishori 11.Adim kobita 12.Mod je khae se matal 13.Nastiker kotha 14.Rupkotha 15.Hae go hae

Bollywood Actress Antara Mali 1979

Antara Mali is an Indian actress who stars in Bollywood films. On 12 June 2009, she married Che Kurrien, the editor of GQ magazine. Antara Mali was born in Gajraula, Uttar Pradesh, India to photographer Jagdish Mali.

Born 11 May 1979 (1979-05-11) (age 32)
Gajraula, Uttar Pradesh, India
Spouse Che Kurrien 2009 - present

Mali made her acting debut in the 1999 film Prema Kadha which was directed by Ram Gopal Varma. Varma became Mali's frequent collaborator. Although Mali was critically acclaimed for her performances in each of her films, she discontinued her acting career after production of her last film (Mr Ya Miss which she had also written and directed) was received poorly and critically panned. Mali paid her tribute to Madhuri Dixit by playing an aspiring actress inspired by Madhuri in the movie Main Madhuri Dixit Banna Chahti Hoon. She received a Filmfare nomination for the Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Company.


Year Film Role Language Notes
1999 Prema Kadha Divya Hindi
Mast Nisha Hindi
2000 Khiladi 420 Monica D'souza Hindi
2002 Company Kannu Hindi Nominated- Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award
Road Lakshmi Hindi
2003 Darna Mana Hai Anjali Hindi
Main Madhuri Dixit Banna Chahti Hoon Chutki Hindi
2004 Gayab Mohini Hindi
Naach Rewa Hindi
2005 Mr Ya Miss Sanjana Hindi
2010 And Once Again Buddhist Monk Hindi


Year Film Language Notes
2005 Mr Ya Miss Hindi

Story Writer

Year Film Language Notes
2005 Mr Ya Miss Hindi

Indian Actress Aruna Irani 1952

Aruna Irani is an Indian actress. An accomplished actress and dancer of her time, Aruna Irani has acted in about 300 movies, with many memorable acting performances to her credit. Irani is the sister of film-maker Indra Kumar and actor Adi Irani (one who became her son in movie Beta). She is married to film director Kuku Kohli.

Born in 1952 Irani into an parsi family and made her debut in the movie Gunga Jumna (1961) at nine years old playing Azra's character as a child. After doing several small roles in films like Jahanara (1964), Farz (1967), Upkar (1967) and Aaya Sawan Jhoomke (1969), and pairing with comedian Mehmood in films like Aulad (1968), Humjoli (1970), and Naya Zamana (1971), she finally shot to fame with her brilliant performance as an aggressive gypsy woman in the super hit Caravan (1971). By that time, however, she was emotionally involved with Mehmood and did not focus fully on her career. Their relationship also ruined the chances of her getting the heroine's roles. Yet, Mehmood gave her lead roles opposite the likes of Amitabh Bachchan and Vinod Mehra in the films that he made: Bombay To Goa (1972), Garam Masala (1972), and Do Phool (1973).

The success as a heroine still eluded her, and ironically, the newer actors and actresses that she supported became stars while acting with her: Jeetendra in Farz(1967), Rishi Kapoor and Dimple Kapadia in Bobby (1973), Jayaprada in Sargam (1979), Kumar Gaurav in Love Story (1981), Sanjay Dutt in Rocky (1981). She ended up doing vampish and supporting roles, mainly because her memorable performance in Caravan had already typecast her in such roles. To her credit, however, Aruna Irani seriously took each role and delivered nice performances, thus endearing herself to filmmakers and creating a niche for herself. Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s she appeared in several supporting roles, notably Roti Kapada Aur Makaan (1974), Do Jhooth (1975), Khel Khel Mein (1975), Bhanwar (1976), Fakira (1976), Laila Majnu (1976), Sargam (1979), Qurbani (1980), Aas Paas (1980), Love Story (1981)and Kudrat (1981). She finally won her first Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award for Pet Pyaar Aur Paap (1984). In the late 1980s and 1990s she switched to playing motherly roles, notably in Beta (1992) for which she won her second Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award.She has also acted in the Kannada remake of the same film and the same role. She also got very famous acting in many Gujarati and Marathi films and some way changed trend and played as main protagonist. Some of her Marathi films are Changu Mangu, Bol Baby Bol.

Partial filmography

  • Ganga Jamuna (1961)
  • Jahanara (1964)
  • Ganga ki lahren (1964)
  • Farz (1967)
  • Patthar Ke Sanam (1967)
  • Upkar (1967)
  • Aaya Sawan Jhoomke (1969)
  • Anjaan Hai Koyee (1969)
  • Humjoli (1970)
  • Aan Milo Sajna (1970)
  • Naya Zamana (1971)
  • Ek Paheli (1971)
  • sanjog (1971)
  • Johar Mehmood in Hong Kong (1971)
  • Ek Naari Ek Brahmchari (1971)
  • Caravan (1971)
  • Buddha Mil Gaya (1971)
  • Andaz (1971)
  • Garam Masala (1972)
  • Bombay to Goa (1972)
  • Bobby (1973)
  • Do Phool (1973)
  • Prem Nagar (1974)
  • Roti Kapada Aur Makaan (1974)
  • Mili (1975)
  • Do Jasoos (1975)
  • Khel Khel Mein (1975)
  • Deewaar (1975) (uncredited)
  • Bhanwar (1976)
  • Charas (1976)
  • Sangram (1976)
  • Fakira (1976)
  • Zindagi (1976)
  • Laila Majnu (1976)
  • Duniyadaari (1977)
  • Shalimar (1978)
  • Jaani Dushman (1979)
  • Surakshaa (1979)
  • Aas Paas (1980)
  • Doodh KaKarz (1980)
  • Karz (1980)
  • Qurbani (1980)
  • Rocky (1981)
  • Love Story (1981)
  • Yaarana (1981)
  • Angoor (1982)
  • Kudarat (1981)
  • Bemisal (1982)
  • Bade Dilwaala (1983)
  • Pet Pyaar Aur Paap (1984)
  • Shahenshah (1988)
  • Chaalbaaz (1989)
  • Phool Aur Kaante (1991)
  • Beta (1992)
  • Raja Babu (1994)
  • Bewafa Saman (1995)
  • Indian (1996)
  • Chhote Sarkar (1996)
  • Hamesha (1997)
  • Dil To Pagal Hai (1997)
  • Haseena Maan Jaayegi (1999)
  • Hum Tumhare Hain Sanam (2002)
  • Khatta Meeta (2010)


  • Sanjog Se Bani Sangini on Zee TV
  • Jhansi Ki Rani (TV series) on Zee TV
  • Saas v/s Bahu as Judge on Sahara One
  • Naaginn on Zee TV
  • Babul Ki Bitiya Chali Doli Saja Ke on Sahara One
  • Kahaani Ghar Ghar Ki on Star Plus
  • Rabba Ishq Na Hove on Zee TV
  • Vaidehi (TV series) on Sony TV
  • Zameen Se Aassman Tak on Sahara One
  • Tum Bin Jaaoon Kahaan on Zee TV
  • Des Mein Niklla Hoga Chand on STAR Plus
  • Mehndi Tere Naam Ki on Zee TV
  • Zamana Badal Gaya on DD Metro


  • Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award - Pet Pyaar Aur Paap (1984)
  • Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award - Beta (1992)
  • Filmfare Nomination as Best Supporting Actress - Caravan (1971)
  • Filmfare Nomination as Best Supporting Actress - Bobby (1973)
  • Filmfare Nomination as Best Supporting Actress - Do Jhoot (1975)
  • Filmfare Nomination as Best Supporting Actress - Khoon Pasina (1977)
  • Filmfare Nomination as Best Supporting Actress - Rocky (1981)
  • Filmfare Nomination as Best Supporting Actress - Suhaag (1994)
  • Filmfare Nomination as Best Supporting Actress - Kartaavya (1995)
  • Filmfare Nomination as Best Supporting Actress - Ghulam-E-Mustafa (1997)